Common names: Lubi-lubi, Niog-niogan, Palm Leaf Fig, Philippine Fig
The Philippines is home to thousands of endemic species, and one of them is a fig locally known as Lubi-lubi. I’ve known about this plant since I took up a plant taxonomy course in college, but I only learned that it was also eaten as a vegetable during my field work in La Mesa Watershed when I was already an Assistant Professor.
The only lubi-lubi plant we have in our garden is in a pot that’s too small!
This is such a strange-looking fig plant, that when encountered for the first time by an American botany professor whom I hosted when I was still working in UP Diliman, he was puzzled for several moments before he realized that it was indeed a fig. The ‘pseudopalma’ part of its scientific name means ‘fake palm’, due to its palm-like appearance.
The leaves of lubi-lubi are arranged in a palm-like manner, hence the scientific name Ficus pseudopalma.
Be proud that Lubi-lubi is endemic to our country, which means it’s found only here! (Note: It has been brought to other countries as an ornamental, but they don’t bear viable seeds).
This shrub or small tree grows in early successional areas that don’t get too dry during the summer. The ones I’ve seen are not cultivated at all, but are rather “hulog ng langit” (fallen from the sky); they are easily dispersed by fig-eating animals. As long as its fig wasps are present, the fruits will get pollinated and ripen.
Unripe figs or syconia of Lubi-lubi.
We got Lubi-lubi plant in these photos from a friend at the Philippine Native Plants Conservation Society, Inc. when it was still tiny. It’s now bearing fruits (syconia, if you want to be more technical), but unfortunately, I think there aren’t any of the specific pollinator wasps in our area, hence the figs do not ripen. As you can see, the plant is thriving, even though it is in a pot.
The young shoots are the ones consumed, and you’ll maybe notice in the photo that we’ve been picking them. Usually though, the entire apex is harvested, but that kills the apical bud. That may encourage lateral branching, but we don’t do it for fear of killing the plant. Let me know if you’ve ever done it and whether the plant lived or died.
The entire apex is harvested and sold in markets in the Bicol Region. (Photo courtesy of Market Manila)
Pick the young leaves while they’re still reddish. Otherwise, they’ll be too fibrous to eat. This vegetable is popular in the Bicol Region, where it is usually cooked in coconut milk, onions, garlic, and of course lots of hot chili peppers. It also has folkloric uses for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, kidney stones.
Scientific name: Macrolepiota albuminosa (formerly Agaricus albuminosus or Termitomyces albuminosus)
Family: Agaricaceae (Button Mushroom Family)
Common names: Parasol mushroom, Kabute, Uong, Mamarang
Different sizes of mushrooms
Gills are creamy white
The cap or pileus becomes torn when more mature
It has been raining non-stop for about a week, and mushrooms have been sprouting like crazy everywhere. So I thought that we’ll digress from featuring green vegetables for just this month, and talk about edible mushrooms in the Philippines. Just to jog your memory, mushrooms belong to a completely different taxonomic kingdom than plants or animals. 😉
There are several kinds of edible mushrooms in the Philippines that can be cultivated, but this one is very rarely, if ever, grown commercially. This is why you’ll never find this in the markets all year round. We’ve only ever obtained this particular type of mushroom by foraging around, and never from the market.
We are lucky enough to have an area in the garden as well as access to vacant lots in the village where mushrooms appear every year during the rainy season. Mushrooms are just one of the lovely things that rains bring about!
Edible mushrooms in the Philippines are usually associated with Chinese dishes, for some reason. I personally love them in soups and omelets. Cook them however you will, they’re packed with fiber, proteins, B Vitamins and minerals!
To encourage growth in the garden, keep an area relatively shaded with trees, allow the fallen branches and leaves to decay instead of sweeping them away. Alternatively, go mushroom-hunting in your vicinity. You’ll usually find this variety growing under the shade of trees in areas that are damp.
Just be careful and make sure that the mushrooms you pick are the edible kind and not the poisonous ones! There are poisonous mushrooms that look similar to this edible one, so it goes without saying that you should do your research first to confirm if what you have is edible or not.
I often make the mistake of not specifying a vegetarian meal when booking flights. There was one time when I meekly asked a flight stewardess on a plane bound for Hong Kong for a vegetarian alternative to the usual “Beef or Chicken?” options. She said they had nothing, so all I was given were I think crackers and a drink.
It was by a lucky coincidence that the woman sitting right next to me was actually a Filipina stewardess on vacation who worked for the same airline, and she told me that there are always vegetarian choices on board! She then kindly proceeded to ask the cabin crew to give me something, so I happily got a selection of fresh fruits (it was my first time to taste non-preserved plums that day, oh yeah!). Bless that woman!
I have since then become more assertive about my food requirements as a lacto-ovo-vegetarian (I still eat eggs and dairy products, but no, I don’t eat even fish or seafood). I now will usually insist on getting the meat-free version of a dish in a restaurant (“Waiter, can you please replace the wonton toppings with more vegetables?). But any vegetarian or vegan laments the fact that lack of vegetarian options anywhere we go is still the greatest challenge that we face.
Go green or go home. (Photo courtesy of https://unsplash.com)
Vegans have it much worse, as they don’t eat even eggs or dairy. A big reason why I haven’t yet made the successful transition to veganism is the difficulty in finding 100% animal-free food. Heck, even the ubiquitous Magic Sarap food flavouring lists chicken fat as one of the ingredients. Food with animal traces in them is just almost unavoidable.
So what does a vegetarian like me eat when we go out? Here’s a list of my most commonly ordered food items in non-vegetarian restaurants.
1. Vegetable Staples
Surprise! The Number 1 on the list of vegetarian food are vegetables! Kidding aside, finding a restaurant with even a single vegetable dish can often prove to be a challenge. Dear restaurant owners: beef & broccoli, beef ampalaya, spinach lechon kawali, or eggplant stuffed with pork, are not vegetarian dishes. *Sigh*
So I end up ordering pinakbet (vegetable stew) or lumpiang gulay (spring rolls) to eat with my rice, but both dishes often still have bits of meat in them. All I can do is meticulously remove those bits before I eat my lunch. My mom refers to the process as panghihinguto, an allusion to its similarity to picking kuto (lice) from someone’s head (eww).
Contrary to popular belief, vegetarians don’t eat only salad. (Photo courtesy of https://unsplash.com)
Unlike what many non-vegetarians think, I don’t eat green salad as a main dish. Vegetarians are stereotyped as salad-munchers, but the fact is, I rarely eat fresh salad. But thank you for placing that on the menu as an afterthought, and please hold the bacon bits.
2. Noodles (including Pasta)
Oh yes, whether it’s stir-fried or in soup, noodles are often my go-to order, because there just usually is no other choice. As mentioned, many restaurants here in the Philippines will have no vegetable dish on the menu, but few will not have at least one noodle item on offer. However, it often has some meat or seafood bits mixed in it (think pancit canton or wonton noodle soup), so if I can’t order it meat-free, I just practice panghihinguto before I eat it.
The elusive meat-free pasta. (Photo courtesy of https://unsplash.com)
Meat-free pasta is hard to find, but Sbarro’s saves the day with their baked ziti, which can be topped with a choice of meat-free tomato or Alfredo sauces. I count myself lucky when marinara, pesto, or aglio e olio pasta are on offer in Italian-themed restaurants, but usually they are not.
3. Vegetarian or Cheese Pizza
Meat-free pizzas can be usually had from any self-respecting pizza place. Papa John’s is a winner, and I am in love with their garden special pizza. I hope they open up a branch here in Cavite province (please make it Dasma or Gen. Trias, please…).
People of the Philippines, where can I find pizza like this? (Photo courtesy of https://unsplash.com)
We need more Subway branches in this country! I don’t particularly like fresh salad, but I love salad sandwiches. Luckily, there’s this sandwich place that recently opened in Dasma, the one with the hexagonal bread, what’s it called again? Please comment below if you know what I’m talking about. In any case, they have a tofu steak sandwich, which weirdly enough was probably the very first of its kind that I have ever eaten. I enjoyed it, although I think the tofu slice was just a tad too thick. I just have not had many chances when it comes to trying out new restaurants, and I am probably missing out on all the nice sandwich places out there.
Vegetarian sandwiches are so easy to make and so delectable, so why don’t they offer these in many restaurants?
Which brings me to the next food item…
God bless the person who invented tofu, as this is practically the only accessible meat analogue (although strictly speaking, it’s not really an imitation of any kind of meat) here in the country. This is the reason why, given a choice of fast food restaurants, I always go to Chowking, because they have plain tofu on the menu.
Oh my, Max’s sizzling tofu is so delish! (Photo courtesy of jenryv2 http://www.foodspotting.com)
Tokyo Tokyo in SM City Dasmariñas has always been nice for always accommodating my special request of replacing the sauce on their tofu steak donburi with a meat-free version. Other Japanese-themed restos will also typically have tofu furai (tofu fry or fried tofu), like what they have in Karate Kid. But for the ultimate tofu experience, Max’s sizzling tofu is still unbeatable for me.
6. Side Dishes
The only things most other fast food restaurants have that I can consume are the side dishes. This is where vegetarians can be creative, as pairing two or more side dishes can make a complete meal. I am particularly thankful to KFC for having coleslaw, which I order large and pair with a large serving of French fries. I also would like to thank Kenny Rogers for their side sampler. Wendy’s is also great for their baked potatoes.
Side dishes, when there’s nothing else.
I think I am officially craving for a tasty meal right now. Vegetarian choices in Philippine restaurants may still have a long way to go before becoming comparable to what meat-eaters have, but they are definitely out there! Being a vegetarian in a mostly-omnivore world has its challenges, but these are small problems compared to the countless good things that a vegetarian lifestyle does to ourselves, the animals, and the planet. Go green!
We reaped what we sowed, and our pesto cravings have been satisfied.
Those who follow me on Instagram will remember this post from roughly two months ago:
My Instagram post of basil seedlings we planted last March.
I’m happy to say that the basil plants are now all grown, and although they suffered from an attack of lace bugs (at least that’s what I guess the little pests are), we still harvested enough herbs to make pesto sauce for the entire family.
The traditional pesto recipe calls for pine nuts, but I’m a believer in cooking the “Cham-cham” way sometimes, especially when it comes to pasta sauce (chamba-chamba, tsamba-tsamba, or chance-chance, meaning you cook by relying on luck to produce something that’s good, hehe), so even with a lack of nuts, we proceeded with our pesto project.
Our poor man’s pesto sauce consisted of four ingredients:
Basil leaves (chopped as finely as you are capable)
Extra virgin olive oil
Fresh garlic cloves (grated)
Parmesan cheese (grated)
I’m not even providing the amounts of each ingredient we used, because the Cham-cham school of cooking stresses that you use all ingredients according to your preference, and not to any other person’s rules. At any rate, I am of the opinion that you can never use too much basil, or olive oil, or even garlic and Parmesan cheese for that matter.
For the sake of those who don’t like too much garlic though (but why, for the life of me, I’ll never understand), you might want to hold back a bit on the garlic. My estimate is half a clove of fresh garlic per person (although personally, I want at least 2 cloves for myself, haha). But like I said, do it according to preference!
Just mix everything in a bowl, and use on any cooked pasta that you like. We had fusilli, and it was perfect because the grooves in the pieces were superb for lodging the roughly chopped leaves. If you have a food processor, by all means use it!
I suggest serving with hot sauce or chili flakes, or for those who are non-vegetarians, you can top with a little bit of Spanish-style sardines.
There are dozens of banana cultivars across the country, but only a few of them reach the markets in highly urbanized areas, including Dasmariñas City in the Province of Cavite where we sometimes go to buy fruits and vegetables in bulk.
During our most recent trip there, my mother and I made a stop at the Market Mall, a five-story building (2 basement, ground, and 2 upper levels) nestled in the Kadiwa market district, where almost anything can be bought at very low prices (if you have the time and the adventurous spirit to visit).
The uppermost level is where truckloads of fruits and vegetables are delivered, hence the moniker “bagsakan”, which literally means a place for dropping things.
I was overwhelmed by how vast the area was the first time I visited the “Bagsakan” (unloading place in English) of Market Mall Dasmariñas
The uppermost level of SM Market Mall Dasmariñas City is where fruits and vegetables are delivered by the truckloads and sold at very low prices.
My mother crouches as she selects vegetables at the market.
While helping my mom carry stuff she bought, I tried familiarizing myself with the banana varieties that were available that day. I apologize for the low quality of the photos that accompany this post, as I was shooting using a cheap camera phone while my arms were unsteadied by the bags I carried.
Random Trivia: A hand of banana is “piling” in Tagalog, while the entire cluster with several hands is “buwig”.
I identified five varieties of bananas on that day at the market, and here is my review of each of them. The descriptions I provide are based on the varieties’ characteristics when they are very ripe. So even though I rate Latundan lower on the sweetness scale than Lakatan, a less ripe fruit of the latter may be less sweet than a more ripe one of the former.
Lakatan is the most popular variety for making banana shake.
External appearance: Probably my favorite variety, it has slightly angular, medium to large-sized fruits. Yellow-orange skin is relatively thick and does not crack when ripe.
Taste and texture: Quite an aromatic variety, Lakatan’s flesh is of a light orange color, and is firm even when a bit overripe. It is usually eaten raw and is also the one popularly used in banana shakes. Sweetness level: 5/5.
Latundan is probably the most common banana variety in Philippine markets
External appearance: Arguably the most popular cultivar, the Latundan’s fruits are small to medium-sized, and appear more rounded unlike the angular Lakatan. Its skin is bright yellow and very thin, and cracks open when very ripe.
Taste and texture: The white flesh is soft, becoming almost squishy when overripe. Not as aromatic as Lakatan. Mostly consumed raw. Sweetness level: 4.5/5.
The smallest variety, the Señorita has an average length of maybe only about 7 cm (~3 in).
External appearance: In most aspects superficially similar to Latundan, but is much smaller, hence the name. The fruits break off from the stem very easily.
Taste and texture: Surpasses Lakatan in being aromatic, but has a similar color and texture, if a bit softer. Sweetness level: 5/5.
Saba is typically cooked before eaten.
External appearance: Angular fruits are short but wide, giving them a stouter look. Skin is a dull yellow and very thick.
Taste and texture: The cream colored flesh is not aromatic and is firm and very starchy, making it ideal for cooking. Can also be eaten raw when ripe, although it is best when fried or boiled. Sweetness level: 3.5/5.
It’s easy to mistake the Lagkitan for the Latundan superficially.
External appearance: Relatively unpopular until recently, this medium-sized fruit can be easily mistaken for Latundan due to the similar yellow skin, which however appears duller than the latter. It has a plumper and more angular appearance too, and the skin is thicker.
Taste and texture: White flesh can be described as being a mix between Latundan and Saba. More starchy and firmer than Latundan, but softer and sweeter than Saba. Tastes good either raw or cooked. Sweetness level: 4/5.
These are only a few of the several varieties of bananas you can find in Philippine markets. If you know of other varieties in your area, I’d be delighted to hear about them!